Credit East Africa Trade and Investment Hub Nairobi Business Commercial District, seen from Kenyatta International Conference Center.
Cities around the world are facing daunting challenges from more frequent and intense weather events and a more variable climate. As populations and city boundaries grow, these changes in climate will make it more difficult for cities to provide reliable services and adequate infrastructure to residents. For example, an estimated $158 trillion in assets—double the world’s annual productive output—is at risk of being damaged or destroyed by 2050 from extreme storms, floods, fires, and droughts. But as centers of economic activity, civic engagement and political will, cities are well positioned to proactively manage risks and increase the positive impact of urbanization on national economies.
Cities also have a large role to play in reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Buildings are responsible for approximately 40 percent of urban emissions. Many cities can drastically reduce emissions by improving the efficiency of building heating, cooling, and lighting systems.
City landfills release methane, a greenhouse gas many times more powerful than carbon dioxide. Improvements in waste management can cut emissions by as much as 15 percent, up to 20 percent if overall waste reduction measures are also included.
Many cities are dependent on infrastructure and the services that it provides. This makes city dwellers vulnerable to a loss of those services, which include transportation, water and wastewater, electricity, and others. Extreme heat is another concern in cities, many of which are already experiencing urban heat islands. Climate change will result in more intense summer temperatures and more frequent heat waves, putting urban populations at risk. And because many cities are located in coastal zones, they will be at higher risk of damage from flooding and coastal storm surge.
Traffic congestion generates significant urban emissions, and creates an opportunity to reduce those emissions. Encouraging people to shift away from using private, combustion engine vehicles to using mass transit, walking, and biking can reduce emissions by upwards of 20 percent, as well as improving air quality and public health.
Ensuring that cities can run on clean, low-carbon power sources is also essential. Many cities could achieve a grid mix of up to 70 percent renewables by 2030, which would reduce their emissions by at least a third.


Best Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation of Urban Climate Adaptation: A Literature Review

This report from the USAID-funded Adaptation Thought Leadership and Assessments (ATLAS) project examines a range of M&E approaches developed by international organizations, national governments and municipal authorities to guide cities toward robust, practical, and resource-efficient urban adaptation M&E systems.

Engaging the Private Sector in Green Infrastructure Development and Financing: A Pathway Toward Building Urban Climate Resilience

This report from the USAID funded Adaptation Thought Leadership and Assessments (ATLAS) project examines the many benefits of green infrastructure, including stormwater management, reduced heat impacts, increased biodiversity, and improved air and water quality that work together to improve a city’s overall resilience.

Building Urban Resilience to Climate Change: A Review of Madagascar

This report examines the institutional, legal and regulatory environment, climate change adaptation and urban management capacity, and financial resources and mechanisms available to address adaptation and disaster risk reduction priorities in Madagascar’s growing cities.

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